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"A small body of determined spirits fired by an unquenchable faith in their mission can alter the course of history."
Mahatma Gandhi

CSTA-sponsored Research

The CSTA funded one of its members, Nicola Brough, through her Masters by Research. Nicola was awarded an MPhil for her work being of such high standard. 

Nicola's thesis, Perspectives on the effects and mechanisms of craniosacral therapy: A qualitative study of users' views, published in the European Journal of Integrative Medicine, explored 29 participants' experiences with craniosacral therapy.  The study included three participants suffering acquired brain injury and a further paper focused on their outcomes: Craniosacral therapy supports those with acquired brain injury.

Nicola’s work progressed into a PhD funded by Warwick University with additional support from the CSTA. Nicola has presented her work at numerous conferences including the International Society for Quality of Life in Copenhagen 2016, World Congress of Integrative Medicine & Health in Berlin, Germany 2017, and won the prize for best oral presentation at the CAMSTRAND 2017 Conference in Southampton.

The aim of Nicola's study, The 25-item Warwick Holistic Health Questionnaire ("WHHQ"), was to design and evaluate a questionnaire that assesses changes in the health and wellbeing of people having Craniosacral Therapy.

Identifying outcomes important to clients is essential in holistic care. The WHHQ has been developed with input from CST users and practitioners, capturing health gains that users attribute to CST. The questionnaire incorporates holistic statements and represents new concepts in healthcare evaluation, such as self-agency and self-care.

The latest reliability and validation results are currently being prepared and the psychometric properties of the questionnaire will be available shortly. An ideal tool to audit practice and to enable more robust studies of the effectiveness of CST in the future, the WHHQ may also be applicable to other modalities of complementary and alternative medicine.

For further information or to register your interest in using the WHHQ, please contact



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